Category Archives: Experiments

Water Tanks, Water Towers

Need a drink? How about a shower? In most places in America, it’s easy to turn a handle and watch the water come pouring out. But how does it get there?! Hydrostatic pressure of course! Most us have seen a water tower but the reason they’re there is because of water pressure. When pumps pull water up into the structures, it creates enormous amounts of pressure that allows gravity to drop the water back down and supply the communities around them. But in cities ‘ a problem: gravity can only push the water so far, so when it’s at its equilibrium (around five floors in NY City because of the height of the reservior that feeds the city) it can’t go any higher because gravity can’t push up, and that’s where water tanks come in! Above buildings and skyscrapers in New York (and most other big cities for that matter) water tanks are placed on top of the buildings where the gravity pulls it down though the building for people to use, that way the entire building can have water! Isn’t that useful? Water tanks are usually wooden and have large metal rings tightened like belts around them and there’s always more rings at the bottom rather than the top because of the increased water weight at the bottom of the tank. Once we understood that, we considered very large skyscrapers. Check out the link below and prepare to be amazed!

So we would completely understand this concept, we did an experiment where we saw this in action. Water at 3 different levels and with the use of siphons, in a few short minutes, all the water levels evened out. It’s gravity and water pressure in action!

Next time you turn on your faucet, give a shout out to a reservoir or water tower near you!

IMG_9163
This is our learning wall that Mom drew explaining how water towers work. Pretty cool!

 

IMG_8934IMG_8932IMG_8929

IMG_8920MkmWaterSystemIllustration

SaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSaveSave

It’s Probably Blue…

M&Ms, probability and percentages. Seems unrelated, but WAIT! It’s not! What is your favorite color M&M? Based on statistics, I’m guessing you love blue and orange the best. Although we have gone over probability before, we did an activity to see how consistent colors are within bags of M&M’s – think the amount of each color is random? Think again!

To do this project we used 3 “Sharing Size” packs of M&M’s, a plate to sort with and a box with 6 slots. After sorting them and placing them in the box we realized that each of the bags were nearly identical!

Blue was added in 1995 – consumers voted it in (over pink and purple!) to replace the light brown – and now, by percentages, there are, on average 24% of each bag. Check out the history of colors on the chart below. Next time you grab a handful of M&M’s look down and see what the color mix – guessing not many yellow or brown!

IMG_9431

IMG_9430IMG_9432

IMG_9433IMG_9434

BniITRZCEAAT3L4
We found this online, but with no credits so we can’t offer them here either!
mm-perspective-03-2016
This was published in the March 7th issue of Adweek. Check out the full article here.

How Sweet it is!

Hey! So it turns out that we forgot to put a post up from 2015!! It was finished we just forgot to post it… so we thought “now is as good’a time as any! So without further ado, Go forth brave soldier! Learn about sugar and its glory!!!!

Sugar has been a topic of discussion this week. We were also covering changes in states of matter. Combine the 2 and you get this experiment!

Our materials for this experiment were: domino sugar cubes, a paper towel, a big flat bowl filled with warm water and food coloring.  The first round of fun was putting 2 single cubes of sugar into the shallow bit of water and quickly placing a single drop of coloring on each. Within less than a minute they had completely dissolved!

We then make it even more exciting: we stacked 3 cubes and put one drop of food coloring on it. Then we quickly transferred the tower into the water of the bowl and a rainbow explosion of color went everywhere! {not the walls and ceiling just the bowl. :0) Less than 1 minute later the dots had dissolved and we were left with some dishes to do…

A cool experiment. Fast. Fun and very colorful!!

IMG_5200IMG_5201

IMG_5204
notice how much better the iPhone 7 camera resolution is rather than the iPhone 5’s! Amazing!!!

IMG_5250

IMG_5220

Are You a Super-taster?

We all know about taste buds. But did you know that your sense of taste is directly related to smell? This week we’ve been learning all about it…to start, we wanted to know how good our sense of smell was. To find out, first we needed to take a sneak peek at how our noses smell. At the back of our nose there’s a patch of skin called the Olfactory Epithelium and on that are the olfactory receptor cells. Those connect to the olfactory tract and then to the brain. Smell is the first sense a human uses when they’re born!

We tested our own sense of smell by taking four bowls of vinegar and water (tiny ones) each diluted at different percentages and we had to organize them in order – strongest to weakest. Harder than it sounds since your nose gets desensitized to the smell and after a minute or so, it’s hard to tell the difference! We then had unlabeled scents that we had to identify by smell alone. Some were easy to place, some not so much!

Now, on to taste. A super taster is someone that has the ability to taste more flavor than your average human. There are a couple different kinds of tests online to see if you are a super taster but we used a relatively simple one. All we used is our phone camera, our tongues, a little paper circle (we got ours from those lined sheets of paper that go in binders, and cut ours out) and blue food coloring. After carefully dabbing our tongues with food coloring, we got our little paper doughnut and placed it on the tip, then we quick took a picture and started counting. To know if you are in fact a super taster you need to have at least 40 or more taste buds in that designated area, although this number fluctuated depending on which site we looked at. We each did this, and Mom and Olive are super-tasters and not surprisingly, superior smellers, while me and Dad are not. This explains our love for spices and flavors and Mom and Olive’s amazement when we keep on adding more!

Are you a super-taster or super-smeller? Leave us a comment and let us know!

If you’re up for a 15 minute super funny test of silly guys testing their super tasting abilities, watch this!

IMG_7663
No labels, we had to sniff out what the scent was. Fun anytime!

The Skin You’re In…

Skin. The largest organ in the body. Ever wonder how much of it we actually have?  To find out, we did an experiment (of course!) we found here.  All you need is: a lot of paper (news paper would also work), tape and two or more well-mannered family members or friends.

LET US BEGIN!! For this fun project Olive decided to step up and be the star of the show, but if you don’t have an Olive handy, you can always use someone else ;0) Long story short, we covered our handy skin model in paper and tape, and carefully cut and ripped it all off in big chunks and then flattened into as close of a rectilinear shape as possible and measured it. We took the dimensions and found the area. Turns out all of Olive’s skin measured up to approximately 2,441 square inches!! I say approximately because we didn’t measure the skin between fingers and toes, into ears, eyelids, you get the idea. In case you’re wondering, average adults have around 2,800 square inches… that’s a LOT of SKIN!

From there, we figured out the pressure placed on her body. Atmospheric pressure is calculated at 14.7 pounds per square inch, which that means there’s 35,8827 pounds of force on her body from the sea of atmosphere around her! Talk about being under PRESSURE!!

IMG_7563IMG_7565IMG_7567IMG_7569IMG_7576IMG_7577IMG_7579

Baby, It’s Cold Outside!

Just a couple of days a go we learned the difference between glaciers and icebergs, and along the way we also learned how salt affects ice!

To start, we learned the difference between the two similar looking ice formations. Glaciers are formed with continual tons of snow in a place where it can’t melt, such as the arctic and they are entirely above water level. An iceberg is the broken part of a glacier which floats 10% above water level (and yes we will be learning about that little myth a little bit later!). Now, EXPIRIMENT TIME!!!

The only things you will need for this experiment is: water balloons, two bowls, large clear bowl, food coloring of your choice and salt. Lets get to it!

First we filled several water balloons with plain water and we left them in the snow to see how long it would take to freeze. After a (surprisingly) long overnight wait, we unwrapped the balloons and found really cool looking ice orbs, they had little air pockets inside which actually looked like needles as they froze in place, capturing the air within them. There weren’t any in the tops of the ice balls since the tops froze first, pushing the air downward into the bottom of the all. After admiring them for some time, we each took an orb and placed it in the center of each of our bowls, taking a pinch of salt and sprinkling it over them. Now is a good time now to add a few drops of food coloring.  As we watched, little canals formed and we could hear a slight hissing sound coming from them as the air released from the melting ice. Finally, we took a big glass bowl, filled it with water and plopped the ice in we let it sit for a minute and BAM! much like an actual iceberg, the ice ball was exactly 10% above the water level.  We tried this over and over with different ice balls and it was always the same – 10%.

The last thing we wanted to better understand was the fact that as an iceberg melts, there can be up to 1 mile of fresh water separate of the sea water. We modeled that by making a tunnel in one of the ice balls and squirting green food coloring through it. As you can see from the photos, the green part (representing fresh water) doesn’t mix with the blue water at its edge. With currents in an ocean, eventually, it would mix together, but in the area where it continues to melt it was easier to understand how that fresh water could stay fresh!

IMG_7361IMG_7365IMG_7377IMG_7383IMG_7384IMG_7389IMG_7392IMG_7399IMG_7411

 

IMG_7396IMG_7398IMG_7415

Wigglin’ Gummy Bears!

What do you know about GELATIN!? Most people know about it because of Jello but it is used in all kinds of product besides that, including some manufacturing processes. As we  learned about the properties of gelatin, to our surprise, it is made of collagen, the stuff in bones, ligaments, skin and connective tissue! (Oh dear!!)! It is the most abundant protein in mammals. It is generally collected from cows & pigs for creating gelatin. It’s colorless, odorless and tasteless (well, we think it has a little taste, but we are sensitive to flavor). Wonder where the famous wiggle comes from? It originates in the structure in the protein strands which tangles and traps the water inside it. Structure + water = jiggle!

To get hands on experience with this, we moved into the kitchen to make tiny gummy bears. They are SO CUTE! For this cooking adventure we used: vegan gelatin, two flavors – grapefruit and apple, little gummy molds, a pipette to be extra exact when filling, and a pot and boiling water. Let’s get COOKING!!

We made 2 flavors. Apple lemon and grapefruit honey. We made the recipe, piped them into the molds and whacked them in the fridge for about an hour of so. The grapefruit one didn’t set, and they didn’t taste so great… The apple gummies set up great, but again, not such terrific flavor.  It was cool to know that inside those jiggly little bears were tiny microscopic mesh holding pockets of flavored liquid! Now that’s BEARY cool!!!

IMG_6323IMG_6327IMG_6326IMG_6328IMG_6333IMG_6334